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## AC vs DC

 AC DC 1 AC means alternating current DC means direct current 2 AC current reverses its direction periodically. AC alternates its direction within a circuit over time DC current flows in only one direction. DC does not change across time. 3 The magnitude of the current vary with time AC current varies in both direction with each cycle, +ve to –ve, and –ve to +ve direction in each cycle with time. The magnitude of current may be constant or vary with time, but only in one direction. { variation of frequency like ac in dc called ripple. the battery gives pure DC without ripple but in circuits dc supply flow with some ripple, and from the rectifier, we don’t get pure dc} 4 The frequency of AC is 50HZ or 60 HZ depending upon the country. 50HZ means 50 times change the direction (+ve to –ve or reverse) in one second. There is no frequency in DC OR The frequency of DC is zero. But it may have high-frequency ripples. 5 AC can be easily generated mechanically such as with a generator. DC also can be generated using generated but with some ripple. DC can also be generated in the battery. 6 In AC Mostly Sinusoidal, the small signal may be Trapezoidal, Triangular, Square DC overlap with Trapezoidal, Triangular, Square (maybe called pulsating DC) 7 Voltage is represented as a sine equation             V=20sinѠt Voltage is represented as an equation. If V=20 V=20+5sinѠt 8 AC is not portable. DC can be carried around in the form of a battery. 9 Energy cannot be stored in AC form directly Energy can be stored in directly in DC form. 10 It is easier to protect from fault in AC It is difficult to protect from fault in DC. 11 Fuse can be used. Fuse can be used but the same AC fuse will protect lower DC voltage/current. 12 Voltage can be changed easily using a transformer. Voltage cannot be changed easily in DC. 13 Wireless Radio, TV transmission signals use very high-frequency AC (in Analog transmission) (Digital transmission) DC power used In wireless communication as DC pulse 14 Used in loads like heating, light, motors, etc in industry and houses. Useful for low power/voltage electronics devices. 15 2 generating stations with different frequencies cannot be connected together directly. 2 generating stations with different frequencies can be connected together using HVDC transmission/Link.